For full citations, see H. Roscher Hildesheim: Olms, ; reprint —97 —21 Google Scholar. Horace, Ars poetica , See the notes of C.
As Horace is citing this as the sort of thing that should not be shown on the stage, it may be that he has deliberately phrased his statement to reflect, not an actual belief, but an extreme to which an unscrupulous playwright might go. Pausanias See Pausanias, Description of Greece , 5 vols.
Frazer makes a strong case for her nationality being Libyan Google Scholar. James Frazer London: Macmillan and Co. Clement of Alexandria seems to preserve the same tale Google Scholar.
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See the Lamia of Angelus Politianus, in Opera omnia , 3 vols. Apuleius, Metamorphoses — See Nicomachean Ethics , trans. See John Burnet, ed. The fact remains that the Greek seems to indicate a single individual who routinely present tense performs this crime. A single action of an anonymous female does not seem to make sense.
Aristotle, Historia Animalium b17; cf. Pliny, Historia Naturalis 9. The lamna of Oppian Halieutica 1. Statius, Thebaid 1. Silvae-Thebaid I—IV , 2 vols. Mozley London: London. Patristic sources are in disagreement over the identity of Symmachus, who likely worked about the end of the second or beginning of the third century. According to Epiphanius, Symmachus was a Samaritan who later became a convert to Judaism.
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Eusebius regarded Symmachus as a member of the Ebionite community, and therefore as a sort of half-Christian, as does Jerome. See Roger Gryson, ed. This myth may also be found fully elaborated in the Alphabet of Ben Sira , a Hebrew biblical commentary written between the seventh and tenth century CE, and also translated into Latin. For a discussion of rabbinic and talmudic sources for the Lilith legend, see also A. Gershom G. Midrash Rabbah: Numbers , Judah J. Slotki London: Soncino Press, , 2: See The Chronicle of Ahimaaz , 12a, trans.
Olms, , 81 and Precisely because Lilith represents a socially constructed negative image of the female, she has become in modern times a symbol of feminist liberation in interpretation and literature Google Scholar. Thus, Isa. See for example Zohar 3, 19a, in The Wisdom of the Zohar , 3 vols.
Adriaen Turnholt: Brepols, , John Cassian, Collationes , 7. For a discussion of Lam. See Origenis Hexaplorum, quae supersunt: sive veterum interpretum graecorum in totum Vetus Testamentum fragmenta , 2 vols. Frederick Field Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2: See Harry M. Nida The Hague; Paris: Mouton, , 53— Shabbat 63a-b. John of Ford, Super extremam partem Cantici canticorum sermones cxx , Mikkers and H.
Contrast this image of Lamia with the portrait of the Virgin presented in the popular alma mater redemptoris. Isaac of Stella, Sermones , Hoste and G. Paschasius Radbertus, Expositio in lamentationes Hieremiae, libri quinqui , 4. Lindsay Oxford: Clarendon Press, For a similar gloss on Lam. Note too that sirens were depicted in the Middle Ages as part woman, part fish, fowl, or horse Google Scholar.
Mainz : Philipp von Zabern. The concept of a blessing has a wide semantic range, but a verbal component seems to have been central to it. People may also perform the act of blessing. They might bless other people, but also non-human recipients.
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When we look, for instance, at the rite for the consecration of the baptismal water in ancient liturgies, we see that verbal formulae for exorcising and blessing the water were accompanied by gestures, such as making the sign of the cross and changing the inflection of one's voice. The emphasis in the earliest forms between the fourth and seventh or eighth century was, however, on the words Rouwhorst Rouwhorst, Gerard.
“The Sweepings of Lamia”: Transformations of the Myths of Lilith and Lamia
In De betovering van het middeleeuwse christendom. Hilversum : Verloren. Baumstark's methodology in practice: Historical research on the blessing of baptismal water in the Roman liturgy.
Edited by: Taft, Robert F. Pontificio Istituto Orientale. What we are dealing with here is the transformative power of words, especially the blessing. The water is believed to be transformed by the words and ritual.
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In The Life of Columba , for instance, objects blessed by Columba were transformed into miraculous objects: rock salt did not burn in a fire and a dangerous well became curative. View all notes It is, therefore, likely that an invocation of the divine was included in Brigit's blessing. In fact, the two Latin versions of our case study see below refer to an invocation of Christ during the blessing of the water.
The fasting and prayer of the saint and the couple have the same effect as the blessed water of Brigit. There is one substantial difference, though, between the two tales. They are found in Vita Prima S. Brigitae Hogan Hogan, Edmund. These variant versions supply more details than the Old Irish tale. The order in which they describe these details may vary, but structurally, they tell a similar story.
The Middle Irish Life is different, however, on some significant points. In this text, the man does not ask for help in general, but he asks something specific: a spell or a charm epaid sg. Dictionary of the Irish Language. View all notes to make his wife love him.
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The reference to a charm or spell is remarkable, because the genre of hagiography usually shows a dichotomy between saints and spells, in which spells are associated with pre-Christian or non-Christian people. This is especially the case with religious functionaries who were considered as the saints' competitors, such as sorcerers, witches and, in the Irish context, druids. Dublin : Four Courts Press.
View all notes In a monotheistic context, spells are, furthermore, commonly regarded as evil and associated with demons. Bremmer a Bremmer, Jan N. Bremmer and Veenstra, J. These terms are present in the primary sources, which is one reason to keep them. Furthermore, these terms are genre designations and therefore important to our understanding of the relevant literary genre. Finally, when terms like these are employed in a positive way in a hagiographic context, they serve as a signal that the text shows something that looks odd to our modern eyes.
The dichotomy that is the norm in hagiography is then contradicted. Whether Saint Brigit and her spell seemed odd to the medieval Irish is a different question. The man sprinkles his wife with the blessed water in the Old Irish version.
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